In den vergangenen Jahrzehnten hat ein Wandel stattgefunden vom Ausdruck offener sexistischer Einstellungen zu mehr subtilen und. Sexismus im Arbeitsalltag ist allgegenwärtig. Er ist das Grundrauschen, das gerade Frauen nur allzu gut kennen. Eine Bestandsaufnahme. Sexismus trifft Männer und Frauen. Dabei wertet sie jemand aufgrund ihres Geschlechts ab. Lies in diesem Text mehr dazu, was sexistisch ist.
Footer-Bereich„Du Sexist!“ Das hört man(n) immer wieder in Diskussionen. Immer öfter melden sich Frauen zu Wort, wenn sie sich ungerecht behandelt fühlen. Das ist auch. Der Begriff „Sexismus“ ist klar definiert. Er beschreibt eine auf das Geschlecht bezogene Diskriminierung. Diese Definition wird im Allgemeinen. Sexismus trifft Männer und Frauen. Dabei wertet sie jemand aufgrund ihres Geschlechts ab. Lies in diesem Text mehr dazu, was sexistisch ist.
Sexsismus Subcategories VideoGibt es SEXISMUS GEGENÜBER MÄNNERN? - Soja
In diesem Sexsismus geben die Kandidatinnen von "Der Bachelor" schon ziemlich frh Gas. - Mehr zum ThemaMit dem neuen Forschungsansatz wurde seit den er Jahren insofern immer deutlicher, dass Sexismus nicht mehr in seiner traditionellen Form offen gezeigt wird, sondern ebenfalls Tv Heuteabend Modernisierung unterliegt. Frust. Eine Frau kann keinem jungen Mann beibringen wie man ein attraktiver Kerl wird oder worauf es beim Dating ankommt. Keine liebende Mutter kann dir das beibringen. Hier setzt also Lob des Sexismus an. Es ist ein sehr freches, lustiges und schockierendes Buch. Ich lese es heute noch mit Hochgenuss. Sexism, prejudice or discrimination based on sex or gender, especially against women and girls. Although its origin is unclear, the term sexism emerged from the “second-wave” feminism of the s through the ’80s and was most likely modeled on the civil rights movement ’s term racism (prejudice or discrimination based on race). Blog. Feb. 3, 7 benefits of working from home; Jan. 26, Five strategies to maximize your sales kickoff; Jan. 26, Engage students in your virtual classroom with Prezi Video for Google Workspace. 1, Followers, 60 Following, 39 Posts - See Instagram photos and videos from Servus Sexismus (@spo-ovnilogia.comus). sexism Declension Sexismus is a masculine noun. Remember that, in German, both the spelling of the word and the article preceding the word can change depending on whether it is in the nominative, accusative, genitive, or dative case. For further information, see Collins Easy Learning German Grammar.
Für den von ihm angenommenen Sexismus gegenüber Männern sei es nicht entscheidend, dass gegen alle Männer diskriminiert werde, sondern dass es ein Problem mit Diskriminierung des Geschlechts wegen für eine Vielzahl von Männern gibt.
Kenneth Chatterbaugh betont das lange bestehende feministische Engagement gegen die Diskriminierung von Männern. Eine Studie von , die von dem modernen Sexismus ausgeht, untersucht Frauen und Männer als Betroffene von zwischenmenschlichem Sexismus.
Die Studie zeigte, dass vor allem Frauen von Sexismus betroffen sind und im Durchschnitt von ein bis zwei sexistischen Vorfällen pro Woche berichten, was zu negativen Auswirkungen auf das psychische Wohlbefinden führt.
Im Gegensatz zu den Frauen gab nahezu keiner der befragten Männer an, sich ernsthaft davon betroffen zu fühlen, auf einen geschlechtsspezifischen Objektstatus reduziert zu werden.
Dieses Phänomen bezog sich auf geschlechtsdiskriminierende Vorstellungen. Besonders häufig sind sexistische Weltbilder laut Studie in der Gruppe der über jährigen Ostdeutschen.
Die Studie findet zudem starke Auswirkungen des Bildungsgrad auf sexistische Einstellungen. Die Sensibilität für Sexismus hängt laut Studie vom Bildungsniveau der Befragten ab.
Diese Form des Sexismus zeigt sich nicht offen und direkt, sondern indirekt. Das Gegenteil dazu bildet der benevolente wohlwollende Sexismus.
In diesem Artikel oder Abschnitt fehlen noch folgende wichtige Informationen: Sexismus in der Werbung; Beurteilung von Sexismus gegen transsexuelle und intersexuelle Personen.
Leet, . Der nachfolgende Absatz ist nicht hinreichend mit Belegen beispielsweise Einzelnachweisen ausgestattet. Angaben ohne ausreichenden Beleg könnten demnächst entfernt werden.
Bitte hilf Wikipedia, indem du die Angaben recherchierst und gute Belege einfügst. In: Ruth Becker: Handbuch Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung: Theorie, Methoden, Empirie.
VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaft, Wiesbaden , S. Becker: Subtile Erscheinungsformen von Sexismus. In: APUZ. Februar , abgerufen am Oktober In: The Wise Legacy: How One Professor Transformed the Nation.
In: American Speech. Leet: Women and the Undergraduate. In: Student-Faculty Forum at Franklin and Marshall College. Lancaster PA November In: Vital Speeches of the Day.
November , S. In: taz die tageszeitung , Mai , Link zielt auf die erweiterte Version im Blog des Autors. In: Ruth Becker, Beate Kortendieck Hrsg.
Theorie, Methoden, Empirie. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden , S. In: Duden. Abgerufen am Pusch: Gender — wer braucht es und wozu? In: Die Eier des Staatsoberhaupts: Und andere Glossen.
Göttingen , S. Neue Zugänge zu einem alten Problem. In: Ulrike Hormel, Albert Scherr Hrsg. Grundlagen und Forschungsergebnisse. Wiesbaden , S. Zsembik, Joe R.
Feagin : Everyday Sexism in the Third Millennium. New York Swim, Lauri L. Hyers, Laurie L. Cohen, Melissa J. Ferguson: Everyday Sexism: Evidence for Its Incidence, Nature, and Psychological Impact.
From Three Daily Diary Studies. In: Journal of Social Issues. In: Sociology. Magill: International encyclopedia of sociology. London , S. Oxford , S.
Akert, Timothy D. Wilson: Sozialpsychologie. München , S. In: Friederike Schmidt, Anne-Christin Schondelmayer, Ute B.
Schröder Hrsg. Lebenswirklichkeiten, Forschungsergebnisse und Bildungsbausteine. Frankfurt a. In: Ruth Becker, Beate Kortendiek Hrsg.
Akert,Timothy D. In: Irene Dölling, Beate Krais Hrsg. Geschlechterkonstruktion in der sozialen Praxis. Frankfurt am Main , S. Theorien, Befunde und Interventionen.
Weinheim, Basel: Beltz Verlag. Nelson: The Psychology of Prejudice. Mai im Internet Archive Eine deutsche Skala zu ambivalent — sexistischen Einstellungen Hostilität und Benevolenz gegenüber Männern ASEM.
In: Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie. Memento vom In: Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte. Diskurs, soziale Formation und politische Mentalität.
Baden-Baden , ISBN ; Heinz Schreckenberg: Erziehung, Lebenswelt und Kriegseinsatz der deutschen Jugend unter Hitler. In: William A. Darity, Jr Hrsg.
Die Messung von Antifeminismus und Sexismus in Deutschland auf der Einstellungsebene. In: Oliver Decker und Elmar Brähler Hrsg. Neue Radikalität—alte Ressentiments.
Leipziger Autoritarismus Studie Oxford University Press, New York , ISBN In: The Second Sexism. Leet during a "Student-Faculty Forum" at Franklin and Marshall College.
Both the racist and the sexist are acting as if all that has happened had never happened, and both of them are making decisions and coming to conclusions about someone's value by referring to factors which are in both cases irrelevant.
Also, according to Shapiro, the first time the term "sexism" appeared in print was in Caroline Bird 's speech "On Being Born Female", which was published on November 15, , in Vital Speeches of the Day p.
Sexism is judging people by their sex when sex doesn't matter. Sexism is intended to rhyme with racism. Sexism may be defined as an ideology based on the belief that one sex is superior to another.
Sociology has examined sexism as manifesting at both the individual and the institutional level. Wells , and Harriet Martineau described systems of gender inequality , but did not use the term sexism , which was coined later.
Sociologists who adopted the functionalist paradigm, e. Talcott Parsons , understood gender inequality as the natural outcome of a dimorphic model of gender.
Psychologists Mary Crawford and Rhoda Unger define sexism as prejudice held by individuals that encompasses "negative attitudes and values about women as a group.
Feminist author bell hooks defines sexism as a system of oppression that results in disadvantages for women. Philosopher Kate Manne defines sexism as one branch of a patriarchal order.
In her definition, sexism rationalizes and justifies patriarchal norms, in contrast with misogyny , the branch which polices and enforces patriarchal norms.
Manne says that sexism often attempts to make patriarchal social arrangements seem natural, good, or inevitable so that there appears to be no reason to resist them.
The status of women in ancient Egypt depended on their fathers or husbands, but they had property rights and could attend court, including as plaintiffs.
Sexism may have been the impetus that fueled the witch trials between the 15th and 18th centuries. The misogyny of that period played a role in the persecution of these women.
In Malleus Malificarum , the book which played a major role in the witch hunts and trials, the authors argue that women are more likely to practice witchcraft than men, and write that:.
Witchcraft remains illegal in several countries, including Saudi Arabia , where it is punishable by death. In , a woman was beheaded in that country for "witchcraft and sorcery".
When women are targeted with accusations of witchcraft and subsequent violence, it is often the case that several forms of discrimination interact—for example, discrimination based on gender with discrimination based on caste , as is the case in India and Nepal, where such crimes are relatively common.
Until the 20th century, U. Happersett , 88 U. Restrictions on married women's rights were common in Western countries until a few decades ago: for instance, French married women obtained the right to work without their husband's permission in ,    and in West Germany women obtained this right in Women in parts of the world continue to lose their legal rights in marriage.
For example, Yemeni marriage regulations state that a wife must obey her husband and must not leave home without his permission.
Abuses and discriminatory practices against women in marriage are often rooted in financial payments such as dowry , bride price , and dower.
In this regard, critics have questioned the alleged gains of women in Tunisia , and its image as a progressive country in the region, arguing that discrimination against women remains very strong there.
The World Organisation Against Torture OMCT has recognized the "independence and ability to leave an abusive husband" as crucial in stopping mistreatment of women.
While attempting a de facto separation moving away from the marital home is also impossible because of laws preventing this. For instance, in Afghanistan , a wife who leaves her marital home risks being imprisoned for "running away".
Laws, regulations, and traditions related to marriage continue to discriminate against women in many parts of the world, and to contribute to the mistreatment of women, in particular in areas related to sexual violence and to self-determination regarding sexuality , the violation of the latter now being acknowledged as a violation of women's rights.
In , Navi Pillay , then High Commissioner for Human Rights , stated that:. Women are frequently treated as property, they are sold into marriage, into trafficking, into sexual slavery.
Violence against women frequently takes the form of sexual violence. Victims of such violence are often accused of promiscuity and held responsible for their fate, while infertile women are rejected by husbands, families and communities.
In many countries, married women may not refuse to have sexual relations with their husbands, and often have no say in whether they use contraception Ensuring that women have full autonomy over their bodies is the first crucial step towards achieving substantive equality between women and men.
Personal issues—such as when, how and with whom they choose to have sex, and when, how and with whom they choose to have children—are at the heart of living a life in dignity.
Gender has been used as a tool for discrimination against women in the political sphere. Women's suffrage was not achieved until , when New Zealand was the first country to grant women the right to vote.
Saudi Arabia is the most recent country, as of August , to extend the right to vote to women in Swiss women gained the right to vote in federal elections in ,  and Appenzell Innerrhoden became the last canton to grant women the right to vote on local issues in , when it was forced to do so by the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland.
While almost every woman today has the right to vote, there is still progress to be made for women in politics. Studies have shown that in several democracies including Australia, Canada, and the United States, women are still represented using gender stereotypes in the press.
Certain issues e. Sexism in politics can also be shown in the imbalance of lawmaking power between men and women. Lanyan Chen stated that men hold more political power than women, serving as the gatekeepers of policy making.
It is possible that this leads to women's needs not being properly represented. In this sense, the inequality of lawmaking power also causes gender discrimination in politics.
Until the early s, some high-end restaurants had two menus : a regular menu with the prices listed for men and a second menu for women, which did not have the prices listed it was called the "ladies' menu" , so that the female diner would not know the prices of the items.
After she was given a women's menu without prices and her guest got one with prices, Bick hired lawyer Gloria Allred to file a discrimination lawsuit, on the grounds that the women's menu went against the California Civil Rights Act.
The owners of the restaurant defended the practice, saying it was done as a courtesy, like the way men would stand up when a woman enters the room.
Even though the lawsuit was dropped, the restaurant ended its gender-based menu policy. Gender stereotypes are widely held beliefs about the characteristics and behavior of women and men.
Thoman and others hypothesize that "[t]he socio-cultural salience of ability versus other components of the gender-math stereotype may impact women pursuing math".
Through the experiment comparing the math outcomes of women under two various gender-math stereotype components, which are the ability of math and the effort on math respectively, Thoman and others found that women's math performance is more likely to be affected by the negative ability stereotype, which is influenced by sociocultural beliefs in the United States, rather than the effort component.
As a result of this experiment and the sociocultural beliefs in the United States, Thoman and others concluded that individuals' academic outcomes can be affected by the gender-math stereotype component that is influenced by the sociocultural beliefs.
Sexism in language exists when language devalues members of a certain gender. Various 20th century feminist movements, from liberal feminism and radical feminism to standpoint feminism , postmodern feminism and queer theory , have considered language in their theorizing.
One of the most common calls is for gender-neutral language. Many have called attention, however, to the fact that the English language is not inherently sexist in its linguistic system, but the way it is used becomes sexist and gender-neutral language could thus be employed.
Romanic languages such as French  and Spanish  may be seen as reinforcing sexism, in that the masculine form is the default.
German speakers have also raised questions about how sexism intersects with grammar. For more gender-neutral constructions, gerund nouns are sometimes used instead, as this eliminates the grammatical gender distinction in the plural, and significantly reduces it in the singular.
For example, instead of die Studenten "the men students" or die Studentinnen "the women students" , one writes die Studierenden "the [people who are] studying".
In Chinese , some writers have pointed to sexism inherent in the structure of written characters. For example, the character for man is linked to those for positive qualities like courage and effect while the character for wife is composed of a female part and a broom, considered of low worth.
Gender-specific pejorative terms intimidate or harm another person because of their gender. Sexism can be expressed in language with negative gender-oriented implications,  such as condescension.
For example, one may refer to a female as a "girl" rather than a "woman", implying that they are subordinate or not fully mature.
Other examples include obscene language. Some words are offensive to transgender people, including "tranny", "she-male", or "he-she".
Intentional misgendering assigning the wrong gender to someone and the pronoun "it" are also considered pejorative.
Occupational sexism refers to discriminatory practices, statements or actions, based on a person's sex , occurring in the workplace. One form of occupational sexism is wage discrimination.
It also found that although almost all OECD countries, including the U. Women who enter predominantly male work groups can experience the negative consequences of tokenism : performance pressures, social isolation, and role encapsulation.
Ignoring sexist issues may exacerbate women's occupational problems. In the World Values Survey of , responders were asked if they thought wage work should be restricted to men only.
In Iceland, the percentage that agreed was 3. Research has repeatedly shown that mothers in the United States are less likely to be hired than equally qualified fathers and if hired, receive a lower salary than male applicants with children.
One study found that female applicants were favored; however, its results have been met with skepticism from other researchers, since it contradicts most other studies on the issue.
Joan C. Williams, a distinguished professor at the University of California's Hastings College of Law, raised issues with its methodology, pointing out that the fictional female candidates it used were unusually well-qualified.
Studies using more moderately qualified graduate students have found that male students are much more likely to be hired, offered better salaries, and offered mentorship.
In Europe, studies based on field experiments in the labor market, provide evidence for no severe levels of discrimination based on female gender.
However, unequal treatment is still measured in particular situations, for instance, when candidates apply for positions at a higher functional level in Belgium,  [ failed verification ] when they apply at their fertile ages in France,  [ failed verification ] and when they apply for male-dominated occupations in Austria.
Studies have concluded that on average women earn lower wages than men worldwide. Some people argue that this results from of widespread gender discrimination in the workplace.
Others argue that the wage gap results from different choices by men and women, such as women placing more value than men on having children, and men being more likely than women to choose careers in high paying fields such as business, engineering, and technology.
Eurostat found a persistent, average gender pay gap of In the United States, the female-to-male earnings ratio was 0. Women's earnings relative to men's fell from to Research conducted in the Czech and Slovak Republics shows that, even after the governments passed anti-discrimination legislation, two thirds of the gender gap in wages remained unexplained and segregation continued to "represent a major source of the gap".
The gender gap can also vary across-occupation and within occupation. In Taiwan, for example, studies show how the bulk of gender wage discrepancies occur within-occupation.
The gender pay gap has been attributed to differences in personal and workplace characteristics between men and women such as education, hours worked and occupation , innate behavioral and biological differences between men and women and discrimination in the labor market such as gender stereotypes and customer and employer bias.
Women take significantly more time off to raise children than men. Babcock in her book Women Don't Ask shows that men are eight times more likely to ask for a pay raise, suggesting that pay inequality may be partly a result of behavioral differences between the sexes.
Estimates of the discriminatory component of the gender pay gap vary. Wage discrimination is theorized as contradicting the economic concept of supply and demand , which states that if a good or service in this case, labor is in demand and has value it will find its price in the market.
If a worker offered equal value for less pay, supply and demand would indicate a greater demand for lower-paid workers. If a business hired lower-wage workers for the same work, it would lower its costs and enjoy a competitive advantage.
According to supply and demand, if women offered equal value demand and wages should rise since they offer a better price lower wages for their service than men do.
Research at Cornell University and elsewhere indicates that mothers in the United States are less likely to be hired than equally qualified fathers and, if hired, receive a lower salary than male applicants with children.
There is research to suggest that the gender wage gap leads to big losses for the economy. According to Denise Venable at the National Center for Policy Analysis , the "wage gap" in the United States is not the result of discrimination but of differences in lifestyle choices.
Venable's report found that women are less likely than men to sacrifice personal happiness for increases in income or to choose full-time work.
She found that among American adults working between one and thirty-five hours a week, and part-time workers who have never been married, women earn more than men.
There is considerable agreement that gender wage discrimination exists, however, when estimating its magnitude, significant discrepancies are visible.
A meta-regression analysis concludes that "the estimated gender gap has been steadily declining" and that the wage rate calculation is proven to be crucial in estimating the wage gap.
According to a report, "women of colour perceive a 'concrete ceiling' and not simply a glass ceiling". In the economics profession, it has been observed that women are more inclined than men to dedicate their time to teaching and service.
Since continuous research work is crucial for promotion, "the cumulative effect of small, contemporaneous differences in research orientation could generate the observed significant gender difference in promotion".
The United Nations asserts that "progress in bringing women into leadership and decision making positions around the world remains far too slow".
Research by David Matsa and Amalia Miller suggests that a remedy to the glass ceiling could be increasing the number of women on corporate boards, which could lead to increases in the number of women working in top management positions.
A study found that being overweight harms women's career advancement, but presents no barrier for men. On the other hand, approximately five percent of CEOs were obese among both genders.
The author of the study stated that the results suggest that "the ' glass ceiling effect' on women's advancement may reflect not only general negative stereotypes about the competencies of women but also weight bias that results in the application of stricter appearance standards to women.
Transgender people also experience significant workplace discrimination and harassment. Writing for the majority, Justice Neil Gorsuch wrote: "An employer who fires an individual for being homosexual or transgender fires that person for traits or actions it would not have questioned in members of a different sex.
Sex plays a necessary and undisguisable role in the decision, exactly what Title VII forbids. Nixon, a trans woman , had been interested in volunteering as a counsellor with the shelter.
When the shelter learned that she was transsexual , they told Nixon that she would not be allowed to volunteer with the organization.
Nixon argued that this constituted illegal discrimination under Section 41 of the British Columbia Human Rights Code.
Vancouver Rape Relief countered that individuals are shaped by the socialization and experiences of their formative years, and that Nixon had been socialized as a male growing up, and that, therefore, Nixon would not be able to provide sufficiently effective counselling to the female born women that the shelter served.
Nixon took her case to the Supreme Court of Canada, which refused to hear the case. In social philosophy , objectification is the act of treating a person as an object or thing.
Objectification plays a central role in feminist theory, especially sexual objectification. Rae Helen Langton , in Sexual Solipsism: Philosophical Essays on Pornography and Objectification , proposed three more properties to be added to Nussbaum's list:  .
According to objectification theory, objectification can have important repercussions on women, particularly young women, as it can negatively impact their psychological health and lead to the development of mental disorders, such as unipolar depression , sexual dysfunction , and eating disorders.
While advertising used to portray women and men in obviously stereotypical roles e. However, advertising today still stereotypes men and women, albeit in more subtle ways, including by sexually objectifying them.
Today, some countries for example Norway and Denmark have laws against sexual objectification in advertising.
Sol Olving, head of Norway's Kreativt Forum an association of the country's top advertising agencies explained, "You could have a naked person advertising shower gel or a cream, but not a woman in a bikini draped across a car".
Other countries continue to ban nudity on traditional obscenity grounds , but also make explicit reference to sexual objectification, such as Israel 's ban of billboards that "depicts sexual humiliation or abasement, or presents a human being as an object available for sexual use".
Anti-pornography feminist Catharine MacKinnon argues that pornography contributes to sexism by objectifying women and portraying them in submissive roles.
We define pornography as the graphic sexually explicit subordination of women through pictures and words that also includes i women are presented dehumanized as sexual objects, things, or commodities; or ii women are presented as sexual objects who enjoy humiliation or pain; or iii women are presented as sexual objects experiencing sexual pleasure in rape, incest or other sexual assault; or iv women are presented as sexual objects tied up, cut up or mutilated or bruised or physically hurt; or v women are presented in postures or positions of sexual submission, servility, or display; or vi women's body parts—including but not limited to vaginas, breasts, or buttocks—are exhibited such that women are reduced to those parts; or vii women are presented being penetrated by objects or animals; or viii women are presented in scenarios of degradation, humiliation, injury, torture, shown as filthy or inferior, bleeding, bruised, or hurt in a context that makes these conditions sexual.
Robin Morgan and Catharine MacKinnon suggest that certain types of pornography also contribute to violence against women by eroticizing scenes in which women are dominated, coerced, humiliated or sexually assaulted.
Some people opposed to pornography, including MacKinnon, charge that the production of pornography entails physical, psychological, and economic coercion of the women who perform and model in it.
Pornography affects people's belief in rape myths. So for example if a woman says "I didn't consent" and people have been viewing pornography, they believe rape myths and believe the woman did consent no matter what she said.
That when she said no, she meant yes. When she said she didn't want to, that meant more beer. When she said she would prefer to go home, that means she's a lesbian who needs to be given a good corrective experience.
Pornography promotes these rape myths and desensitizes people to violence against women so that you need more violence to become sexually aroused if you're a pornography consumer.
This is very well documented. Defenders of pornography and anti-censorship activists including sex-positive feminists argue that pornography does not seriously impact a mentally healthy individual, since the viewer can distinguish between fantasy and reality.
Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual relations for payment. There is a prevailing notion that because they sell sex professionally, prostitutes automatically consent to all sexual contact.
This is often dismissed, ignored and not taken seriously by authorities. In many countries, prostitution is dominated by brothels or pimps, who often claim ownership over sex workers.
This sense of ownership furthers the concept that sex workers are void of agency. Various authors have argued that female prostitution is based on male sexism that condones the idea that unwanted sex with a woman is acceptable, that men's desires must be satisfied, and that women are coerced into and exist to serve men sexually.
Prostitution is the use of a woman's body by a man for his own satisfaction. There is no desire or satisfaction on the part of the prostitute.
Prostitution is not mutual, pleasurable exchange of the use of bodies, but the unilateral use of a woman's body by a man in exchange for money.
Some scholars believe that media portrayals of demographic groups can both maintain and disrupt attitudes and behaviors toward those groups.
For example, a study of African American women found they feel that media portrayals of themselves often reinforce stereotypes of this group as overly sexual and idealize images of lighter-skinned, thinner African American women images African American women describe as objectifying.
In an attempt to study the effect of media consumption on males, Samantha and Bridges found an effect on body shame, though not through self-objectification as it was found in comparable studies of women.
The authors conclude that the current measures of objectification were designed for women and do not measure men accurately.
Frederick Attenborough argues that sexist jokes can be a form of sexual objectification, which reduce the butt of the joke to an object.
They not only objectify women, but can also condone violence or prejudice against women. Gender discrimination is discrimination based on actual or perceived gender identity.
According to a recent report by the Congressional Research Service , "although the majority of federal courts to consider the issue have concluded that discrimination on the basis of gender identity is not sex discrimination, there have been several courts that have reached the opposite conclusion".
Oppositional sexism is a term coined by transfeminist author Julia Serano , who defined oppositional sexism as "the belief that male and female are rigid, mutually exclusive categories".
Oppositional sexism normalizes masculine expression in males and feminine expression in females while simultaneously demonizing femininity in males and masculinity in females.
This concept plays a crucial role in supporting cissexism, the social norm that views cisgender people as both natural and privileged as opposed to transgender people.
The idea of having two, opposite genders is tied to sexuality through what gender theorist Judith Butler calls a "compulsory practice of heterosexuality".
The concept of opposite genders sets a "dangerous precedent", according to Serano, where "if men are big then women must be small; and if men are strong then women must be weak".
Serano states that oppositional sexism works in tandem with "traditional sexism". This ensures that "those who are masculine have power over those who are feminine, and that only those that are born male will be seen as authentically masculine.
Transgender discrimination is discrimination towards peoples whose gender identity differs from the social expectations of the biological sex they were born with.
The —09 National Transgender Discrimination Survey NTDS —a U. Lisa R. Miller and Eric Anthony Grollman found in their study that "gender nonconformity may heighten trans people's exposure to discrimination and health-harming behaviors.
Gender nonconforming trans adults reported more events of major and everyday transphobic discrimination than their gender conforming counterparts.
An updated version of the NTDS survey, called the U. Transgender Survey, was published in December Although the exact rates are widely disputed, there is a large body of cross-cultural evidence that women are subjected to domestic violence mostly committed by men.
Domestic violence is tolerated and even legally accepted in many parts of the world. For instance, in , the United Arab Emirates UAE 's Supreme Court ruled that a man has the right to discipline his wife and children physically if he does not leave visible marks.
Honor killings are another form of domestic violence practiced in several parts of the world, and their victims are predominantly women.
According to a report of the Special Rapporteur submitted to the 58th session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights concerning cultural practices in the family that reflect violence against women:.
The Special Rapporteur indicated that there had been contradictory decisions with regard to the honour defense in Brazil , and that legislative provisions allowing for partial or complete defense in that context could be found in the penal codes of Argentina, Ecuador, Egypt, Guatemala, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Peru, Syria, Venezuela, and the Palestinian National Authority.
Practices such as honor killings and stoning continue to be supported by mainstream politicians and other officials in some countries. In Pakistan, after the Balochistan honour killings in which five women were killed by tribesmen of the Umrani Tribe of Balochistan , Pakistani federal minister for Postal Services Israr Ullah Zehri defended the practice:  "These are centuries-old traditions, and I will continue to defend them.
Only those who indulge in immoral acts should be afraid. Dowry deaths result from the killing of women who are unable to pay the high dowry price for their marriage.
According to Amnesty International , "the ongoing reality of dowry-related violence is an example of what can happen when women are treated as property".
Female infanticide is the killing of newborn female children, while female selective abortion is the terminating of a pregnancy based upon the female sex of the fetus.
Gendercide is the systematic killing of members of a specific gender and it is an extreme form of gender-based violence. Sex-selective abortion involves terminating a pregnancy based upon the predicted sex of the baby.
The abortion of female fetuses is most common in areas where a culture values male children over females,  such as parts of East Asia and South Asia China, India, Korea , the Caucasus Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia , and Western Balkans Albania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Kosovo.
The trend has grown steadily over the previous decade, and may result in a future shortage of women. Forced sterilization and forced abortion are also forms of gender-based violence.
In China, the one child policy interacting with the low status of women has been deemed responsible for many abuses, such as female infanticide, sex-selective abortion, abandonment of baby girls, forced abortion, and forced sterilization.
In India the custom of dowry is strongly related to female infanticide, sex-selective abortion, abandonment and mistreatment of girls.
See Female foeticide in India and Female infanticide in India. Female genital mutilation is defined by the World Health Organization WHO as "all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons".
The WHO further states that, "the procedure has no health benefits for girls and women" and "can cause severe bleeding and problems urinating, and later cysts, infections, infertility as well as complications in childbirth increased risk of newborn death".
Research by Lisak and Roth into factors motivating perpetrators of sexual assault, including rape, against women revealed a pattern of hatred towards women and pleasure in inflicting psychological and physical trauma, rather than sexual interest.
Odem, Jody Clay-Warner, and Susan Brownmiller argue that sexist attitudes are propagated by a series of myths about rape and rapists.
Sexism can promote the stigmatization of women and girls who have been raped and inhibit recovery.
The criminalization of marital rape is very recent, having occurred during the past few decades; in many countries it is still legal. Several countries in Eastern Europe and Scandinavia made spousal rape illegal before ; other European countries and some English-speaking countries outside Europe outlawed it later, mostly in the s and s;  some countries outlawed it in the s.
The custom of marrying off young children, particularly girls, is found in many parts of the world. This practice—legal in many countries—is a form of sexual violence, since the children involved are unable to give or withhold their consent".
In countries where fornication or adultery are illegal, victims of rape can be charged criminally. Sexism is manifested by the crime of rape targeting women civilians and soldiers, committed by soldiers, combatants or civilians during armed conflict, war or military occupation.
This arises from the long tradition of women being seen as sexual booty and from the misogynistic culture of military training.
The United Nations Population Fund writes that, "Family planning is central to gender equality and women's empowerment". A child marriage is a marriage where one or both spouses are under 18, a practice that disproportionately affects women.
The practice of marrying young girls is rooted in patriarchal ideologies of control of female behavior and is also sustained by traditional practices such as dowry and bride price.
Marrying girls under 18 years old is rooted in gender discrimination , encouraging premature and continuous child bearing and giving preference to boys' education.
Child marriage is also a strategy for economic survival as families marry off their daughters at an early age to reduce their economic burden.
Consequences of child marriage include restricted education and employment prospects, increased risk of domestic violence, child sexual abuse , pregnancy and birth complications, and social isolation.
In several Organisation of Islamic Cooperation OIC countries the legal testimony of a woman is worth legally half of that of a man see Status of women's testimony in Islam.
Such countries include: Algeria in criminal cases , Bahrain in Sharia courts , Egypt in family courts , Iran in most cases , Iraq in some cases , Jordan in Sharia courts , Kuwait in family courts , Libya in some cases , Morocco in family cases , Palestine in cases related to marriage, divorce and child custody , Qatar in family law matters , Syria in Sharia courts , United Arab Emirates in some civil matters , Yemen not allowed to testify at all in cases of adultery and retribution , and Saudi Arabia.
The criminal justice system in many common law countries has also been accused of discriminating against women. Provocation is, in many common law countries, a partial defense to murder , which converts what would have been murder into manslaughter.
It is meant to be applied when a person kills in the "heat of passion" upon being "provoked" by the behavior of the victim.
This defense has been criticized as being gendered, favoring men, because of it being used disproportionately in cases of adultery , and other domestic disputes when women are killed by their partners.
As a result of the defense exhibiting a strong gender bias, and being a form of legitimization of male violence against women and minimization of the harm caused by violence against women, it has been abolished or restricted in several jurisdictions.
The traditional leniency towards crimes of passion in Latin American countries has been deemed to have its origin in the view that women are property.
In the United States, some studies have shown that for identical crimes, men are given harsher sentences than women. Women are more likely to avoid charges entirely, and to avoid imprisonment if convicted.
For example, the gender gap is less pronounced in fraud cases than in drug trafficking and firearms. This disparity occurs in US federal courts, despite guidelines designed to avoid differential sentencing.
According to Shatz and Shatz, "[t]he present study confirms what earlier studies have shown: that the death penalty is imposed on women relatively infrequently and that it is disproportionately imposed for the killing of women".
There have been several reasons postulated for the gender criminal justice disparity in the United States. One of the most common is the expectation that women are predominantly care-givers.
Gender discrimination also helps explain the differences between trial outcomes in which some female defendants are sentenced to death and other female defendants are sentenced to lesser punishments.
Phillip Barron argues that female defendants are more likely to be sentenced to death for crimes that violate gender norms, such as killing children or killing strangers.
Transgender people face widespread discrimination while incarcerated. They are generally housed according to their legal birth sex, rather than their gender identity.
Studies have shown that transgender people are at an increased risk for harassment and sexual assault in this environment. They may also be denied access to medical procedures related to their reassignment.
Some countries use stoning as a form of capital punishment. According to Amnesty International, the majority of those stoned are women and women are disproportionately affected by stoning because of sexism in the legal system.
We also find evidence of considerable heterogeneity across judges in their treatment of female and male offenders. There is little evidence, however, that tastes for gender discrimination are driving the mean gender disparity or the variance in treatment between judges.
A study by Knepper found that "female plaintiffs filing workplace sex discrimination claims are substantially more likely to settle and win compensation whenever a female judge is assigned to the case.
Additionally, female judges are 15 percentage points less likely than male judges to grant motions filed by defendants, which suggests that final negotiations are shaped by the emergence of the bias.
Women have traditionally had limited access to higher education. Educational specialties in higher education produce and perpetuate inequality between men and women.
World literacy is lower for females than for males. Data from The World Factbook shows that In parts of Afghanistan, girls who go to school face serious violence from some local community members and religious groups.
Educational opportunities and outcomes for women have greatly improved in the West. Since , the proportion of women enrolled in college in the United States has exceeded the enrollment rate for men, and the gap has widened over time.
Writer Gerry Garibaldi has argued that the educational system has become "feminized", allowing girls more of a chance at success with a more "girl-friendly" environment in the classroom;  this is seen to hinder boys by punishing "masculine" behavior and diagnosing boys with behavioral disorders.
The researchers attribute this to stereotypical ideas about boys and recommend teachers to be aware of this gender bias. Gender bias and gender-based discrimination still permeate the education process in many settings.
For example, in the teaching and learning process, including differential engagement, expectations and interactions by teachers with their male and female students, as well as gender stereotypes in textbooks and learning materials.
There has been a lack in adequate resources and infrastructure to ensure safe and enabling learning environments , and insufficient policy , legal and planning frameworks, that respect, protect and fulfil the right to education.
Feminists argue that clothing and footwear fashion have been oppressive to women, restricting their movements, increasing their vulnerability, and endangering their health.
The assignment of gender-specific baby clothes can instill in children a belief in negative gender stereotypes. The fashion is recent one.
At the beginning of the 20th century the trend was the opposite: blue for girls and pink for boys. DressMaker magazine also explained that "[t]he preferred colour to dress young boys in is pink.
Blue is reserved for girls as it is considered paler, and the more dainty of the two colours, and pink is thought to be stronger akin to red ".
From the midth century  until the late 19th or early 20th century, young boys in the Western world were unbreeched and wore gowns or dresses until an age that varied between two and eight.
Laws that dictate how women must dress are seen by many international human rights organizations, such as Amnesty International, as gender discrimination.
Interpretations of religion, culture, or tradition cannot justify imposing rules about dress on those who choose to dress differently.
States should take measures to protect individuals from being coerced to dress in specific ways by family members, community or religious groups or leaders.
The production process also faces criticism for sexist practices. In the garment industry, approximately 80 percent of workers are female.
Women who work in these factories are sexually harassed by managers and male workers, paid low wages, and discriminated against when pregnant.
Conscription , or compulsory military service, has been criticized as sexist. In his book The Second Sexism: Discrimination Against Men and Boys , philosopher David Benatar states that "[t]he prevailing assumption is that where conscription is necessary, it is only men who should be conscripted and, similarly, that only males should be forced into combat".
This, he believes, "is a sexist assumption". Only nine countries conscript women into their armed forces: China, Eritrea, Israel, Libya, Malaysia, North Korea, Norway, Peru, and Taiwan.
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